The survival and success of a company internationally is dependent on a multitude of factors, such as their financial resources, past experience, and familiarity with their own domestic market in order to achieve this international presence. However, certain firms called ‘born global’ firms have been able to establish international operations despite not possessing the resources or experience. According to Knight and Cavusgil (2004), Born global firms (BGs) are companies that begin international operations either at or soon after their establishment, with a notable part of their revenue generated from their activities in foreign markets.
Apart from early internationalization, BGs are characterized by their small size, limited resources, lack of prior experience in the domestic and international markets, and limited knowledge. These characteristics serve to differentiate them from large multinational enterprises, domestic firms, and small and medium-sized enterprises that follow a more gradual internationalization path.
My research aims to explore and compare technological platforms in the South Korean automotive, electronics and service robotics industries to extend our understanding of why and how organisations build and use different types of technological platforms.
A technological platform is a modular architecture consisting of core components and peripheral components. The core components provide a foundation for peripheral components to be developed. For example, Apple’s iPhone is a core, and it gives a basis for application development which is a periphery. Therefore, technological platforms connect companies who can innovate and compete by developing core components as well as peripheral components.
Terrorism is a complex phenomenon and it has deteriorating effects on the global economy. Since 2002, the world has witnessed a rise in all forms of terrorism. The economic disruptions caused by violent attacks and the fear of terrorism are massive. The global economic impact of terrorism amounted to USD33 billion in 2018 in constant PPP terms. Fear of terrorism influences economic behaviour and changes investment climate of the affected region (Global Terrorism Index, 2019). The direct costs of terrorism include deaths, injuries, GDP losses, property damage for the countries in conflicted zones. However, there are many indirect costs involved as well such as decline in tourism, financial markets, trade, foreign direct investment and entrepreneurship (Tingbani et al., 2018).
According to Global Terrorism Index 2019, South Asia, MENA and Sub-Saharan Africa are the most impacted regions which accounted for 93% of all deaths from terrorism. These regions also had most lethal attacks, averaging 1.95, 2.67 and 4.11 people killed per attack respectively.
What is CGR PhD's research about?
Introducing research projects of CGR PhD members
Financial Derivatives are instruments that were invented, at least in theory, to protect us from various risks arising in uncertain markets. In an ideal world, they were expected to work like this:
However, a combination of weak regulatory framework, individual greed and financial innovation gone rouge, resulted in 2008 financial crisis, which many blame on excessive and sometimes illegitimate use of Financial Derivatives.